All details about the Processor


Understanding the Function and How to Work Processor PC / Laptop

Understanding Processor

Processor or Microprocessor is a hardware device that becomes the brain of a computer and if the PC without a processor the PC cannot be run. Processors are often also referred to as the central controller or brain-computer which is supported by other components. The processor is an IC that controls the overall course of a computer system and is used as the center or brain of a computer that functions to perform calculations and carry out tasks.

The location of a Processor is on the socket provided on the motherboard, the Processor can be replaced with another processor as long as the processor is in accordance with the socket on the motherboard.

Many brands of processors in the market include Intel, AMD, IBM, Apple, Cyrix VIA, and IDT. But there are 2 companies that are well known in the world as processors for PC processors, AMD and Intel.

The processor also has the task of dividing data processing work with all computer components, and this is done at a very high speed. Therefore the processor becomes very hot so it is usually equipped with a cooling fan.

Generally the definition of a processor or often called the brain-computer, clearly, the processor is an IC that controls the overall course of a computer system and is used as a center or brain with the function of calculating and carrying out tasks.

The location of this processor is on the motherboard, now when the motherboard selection must be adjusted to the type of socket for example for the Intel processor there is an LGA socket, look for motherboards with LGA sockets as well and AMD processors have AM3 +, so it must be adjusted.

But there is the most important thing that is always forgotten, namely the value of the TDP processor must be in accordance with the motherboard as I discussed in tips on making computer assemblies. Processors are also often called “Microprocessors”. The most important part of the processor is:

Logical Mathematics Unit (ALU): Performs all arithmetic (mathematical) calculations that occur in accordance with program instructions.

Control Unit (CU): Data traffic regulator such as input, and output.

Memory Unit (MU): A small storage device that has a fairly high access speed.

Processor History

In 1971, the component called the microprocessor was first made by technicians from the electronics company Intel. The microprocessor is an IC (Integrated Circuit) that is used as the brain / main processor in a computer system. The chip was named Intel 4004 and was designed by Ted Hoff, Federico Faggin, and Stan Mazor.

The following is an outline of the history of the development of the microprocessor:

· In 1971, Intel launched the world’s first 4-bit 4004 microprocessor, designed by Federico Faggin.

· In 1974, Intel introduced an 8-bit 8080 processor, with 4,500 transistors that had 10 times the performance of its predecessor.

· In 1980, Intel introduced the 8087 math co-processor.

· In 1982, Intel introduced a 16-bit 80286 processor with 134,000 transistors.

· In 1985, Intel left the dynamic RAM business to focus on the microprocessor, and finally released the 80386 processor, a 32-bit chip with 275,000 transistors and the ability to run various programs at once.

· In 1998, Intel introduced the Celeron processor.

· In 2004, AMD demonstrated x86 dual-core processor chips.

· In 2005, Intel sold its first Dual-Core processor.

· In 2006, Intel introduced the core 2 duo processor.

· In 2007, Intel introduced a quad 2 core processor.

In its development, the processor is divided into several stages including:

· Microprocessor 4004 (1971)

· Microprocessor 8008 (1972)

· Microprocessor 8080 (1974)

· First generation (processors 8088 and 8086)

· Second Generation (processor 80286)

· Third Generation (80386 DX and 80386 SX processors)

· Fourth Generation (80486 DX, 80486 SX, Cyrix 486SLC, and IBM 486SLC2)

· Fifth Generation (Cyric 6 × 86, AMD, AMD K5, Pentium MMX, IDT Winchip, AMD K6, Cyric 6 × 86 MX, and AMD K6-2.)

· Sixth Generation (Pentium II, Celeron A: Medocino, Celeron PPGA: Socket 370, Xeon, AMD K6-3, and Katmai.)

· Seventh Generation (AMD K7 Athlon)

· Eighth generation (Intel core 2 duo, Conroe, Conroe XE, AMD Athlon 64, and Pentium 4 Prescott.)

· Ninth Generation (Intel Core i3, Intel Core i5, Intel core i7.)

Processor function

The function of the Processor and its parts consist of three main parts, namely:

  1. Control Unit (CU)

All equipment on a computer system is controlled and regulated by this section. Transferring data from the main memory is executed in this section of the CU. Then send the results back to the main memory. After that, the monitor screen will display the output or the hard drive will store the processed data.

  1. Arithmetic and Logical Unit (ALU)

Mathematical/arithmetic calculations are all done in this ALU section, without exception. In addition, if the program/software we are using is having problems, there will be an Error Warning that appears on the monitor, all of which is done in this ALU section. In essence, this ALU is part of LOGIC (decision maker).

  1. Registry (Register)

The register is a place to transfer data to be processed before the data enters the main memory. Although this section is a small storage medium but has a high access speed.

Addition: there is a difference in the location of the processor socket in the socket 478 processor series (Pentium 4) and on the LGA 775 socket processor. The LGA 775 socket processor is located on the holder on the mainboard.

The Processor function

The Processor function is very dominant and main because without a Processor the computer is just like a human who loses his brain. Because it is on the processor that all controls and processing occur. The difference between the processor and the brain is that the processor only functions as a data processor, then the data is sent to the main memory again. The processor cannot store data like the human brain.

In general, the function of the processor (processor) is only to process the data received from the input or input, then it will produce expenditure in the form of output.

The processor cannot work alone but needs support and continues to deal with other components, especially hard drives, and RAM. In processing a data can be done by processing time fast or slow depending on the speed of the processor.

Currently, the highest processor speed is at the speed of 4 Gigahertz (GHz) which means that it can read 4000 billion commands at a time, it is a fantastic number in the development of technology in the world. For gamers, you must be familiar with the term, “greater processor, greater gaming experience”, because a game must have a significant effect on the capacity of a computer processor.

In terms of developers or companies specialized in processor production, there are 2 well-known companies, namely Intel and AMD. From these 2 companies, many flooded the processor market. The second product certainly has advantages and disadvantages of each. Some say that resistance to using for hours or days of intel is more reliable while AMD gamers are the choice because they are better at processing graphics.

How the Processor Works

Is running a set of machine instructions that tell the processor what to do, based on the instructions, the processor performs 3 (three) basic things including:

– Using ALU (Arithmetic Logic Unit), which is to perform mathematical operations such as reduction, recovery, multiplication, and division. Modern microprocessors contain floating point units that can carry out very complex operations at large numbers.

– Then move data from one memory location to another.

– Take decisions and jump to other instructions according to the decision.

Simply put, the way the processor works is to receive feeds or inputs from the mouse, keyboard or other data input device that is connected, then translate or process the command data to the issue or forward the output to the hardware or related software.

When the processor works

It cannot be separated from other supporting components/equipment such as Hard Drive and Memory (RAM). The three parts will continue to be connected to each other in processing data. Processor functions are likened to the brain of a computer, which will receive data and then process it and the output is sent back to memory or hard disk.

Actually, the language/sentence recognized by the processor is only the numbers 0 and 1. The two numbers are just that. Also called machine language / binary numbers (01011001). The number 0 is interpreted by the absence of an electrical signal, and the number 1 is interpreted by the presence of an electrical signal.

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Kinds of Processors with Various Brands

1. Intel

is a microprocessor made from Intel Corporation which is often used on CPUs on many personal computers? In its development, Intel manufacturers issued many versions which were improvements from previous versions.
The advantage of Intel is that it is more durable / not hot, Intel is better used to support work processes such as office not for games.

Intel processors include:
  • Intel Pentium III, this processor is compatible with all applications installed on DOS, Windows, OS / 2, and Linux. The maximum speed reaches 1.4 GHz.
  • Intel Pentium IV is a microprocessor made by Intel Corp. which was released in November 2000. the speed is 20X faster than Intel Pentium III.
  • Intel Core TM 2 Duo, this processor was released by Intel in July 2006. This processor proved to be more efficient than the previous version. As fast as 2.4 GHz.
  • Intel Core TM 2 Quad, this processor is a combination of 2 Core 2 Duo processors with 4 MB of L2 cache, so that the Core 2 Quad has an L2 cache of 8 MB (2 × 4 MB).
  • Intel i7, on this processor the memory controller is located on the processor put itself. Another feature is the addition of SSE4 to the instruction set so that the performance of the multimedia processor gets better.

2. AMD

is the second largest microprocessor in the world after the Intel Corporation. AMD became Intel’s main competitor in the development of processors in the international world.  
AMD’s advantages over other processors.
 -Hyper Transport Bus doubling technology on the system path so that the data delivered is more because the traffic is faster.
– Enhanced Virus Protection (EVP), a   technology that allows processors to recognize viruses and the like so that more protected computers are safer.
-AMD 64 technology, the technology used to run 64bit based applications.

Kinds of AMD processors

  • AMD Phenom II processor
  • AMD Sempron processor
  • AMD Anthon II processor in-a-box
  • AMD anthlonx2 dual-core-processor
  • AMD A-series in-a-box
3. Cyrix

is a microprocessor founded in 1988 in Richardson, Texas as a supplier of specialists for high-performance mathematical coprocessors for 286 and 386 microprocessors?
Cyrix generation among others

  • Cyrix 486SLC works 32bit internally, external 16bit and 16mb RAM
  • Cyrix MediaGX at speeds of 120-200 Mhz
  • Cyrix 6 × 86 with speeds of 110-150 Mhz
  • Cyrix M2 at a speed of 180-233 Mhz
  • Cyrix C3 at a speed of 500-733 Mhz

But in its development, Cyrix processor is unable to compete with AMD and Intel Processor.

You may also read: What is 500 Internal Server Errors



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